RAJA-RAJA dari TIMOR dan sekitarnya

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OBAMA

Indonesia

#1 Jun 28, 2012
Rulers of Local princedoms from 1619 to approximately 1850
KUPANG
Ama Pono I died 1619
Dom Duarte mentioned 1645
Ama Pono IIbefore 1649-1659(grandson of AmaPono I)
Mauritius Ama Pot 1659-1660 (son)
Ama Susang regent-ruler 1660?-1698 (brother)
Ama Besi co-ruler 1660-1678
Pono Koi 1673-1691 (son of Ama Pono II)
Ama Tomananu 1698-1731 (son)
Buni 1732-1749 (grandson of Ama Besi)
Karel Korang 1749-1760 (son)
Lasi Tepak 1760-1770 (descended from Ama Pono II)
Nai Manas 1770-1785 (son)
Kolang Tepak 1785-1786 (uncle)
Tepak Lasi 1786-circa1795 (son of Lasi Tepak)
Susang Manas circa 1795-after 1803(son of Nai Manas?)
Lasi Kloman before 1832-1858 (putative grandson of Lasi Tepak)

LESSER SONBAI

Ama Tuan II 1659-1672 (son of Ama Tuan I of Greater Sonbai)
Usi Tetu Utang 1672-1717 (daughter)
Bernardus de Leeuw 1717-1726 (son of a cousin)
Corneo Leu 1728-1748 (brother)
Daniel Tafin Leu 1748-1760 (brother)
Jacobus Albertus Taffy 1760-1776 (son of Bernardus de Leeuw)
Alphonsus Adrianus 1776-1782 (of Greater Sonbai)
Bernadus Nisnoni or Baki Bena 1776-1795 (so-called brother of Jacobus Albertus Taffy)
Dirk Hendrik Aulasi 1795-1798 (son?)
Pieter Nube or Nube Bena 1798-1821 (brother of Bernardus Nisnoni)
Pieter Babakase 1821-circa 1825 (son)
Isu Baki 1820s (?)(son of Bernardus Nisnoni)
Pieter Aulasi or Ote Nuben circa 1825-1839 (grandson of Pieter Nube)
Meis Nisnoni 1839-1860 (son of Pieter Babakase)
OBAMA

Indonesia

#2 Jun 28, 2012
AMABI

Sebastião mentioned 1652
Saroro Neno mentioned 1655
Aiputu died 1658 (maybe identical with either of the two above)
Ama Kefi I 1666-1704
Ama Kefi II 1704-1725 (son)
Loti 1725-1732 (son)
Nai Balas regent-ruler 1732-1755 (brother)
Balthazar Loti 1755-1790 (son of Loti)
Osu I 1791-1795 (son)
Slolo 1795-circa 1797
Afu Balthazar circa 1797-before 1824
Arnoldus Adriaan Karel Loti before 1824-1834 (son)
Osu II 1834-1859 (brother)

AMFOAN

Nai Toas 1683-after 1698
Am Foan ?-1708 (son?)
Dom Manuel 1708-18 (son)
Daniel I 1718-48 (uncle)
Bartholomeus I 1748-76 (son)
Daniel II 1776-83 (son)
Bartholomeus II 1783-95 (brother)
Babneno 1795-circa 1800
Bartholomeus III circa 1802-06
Jacob 1806-?(brother)
Abi Aunoni mentioned 1829
Manoh Aunoni mentioned 1832
Neno 1830s
Fini Manoh Aunoni before 1845-1850
OBAMA

Indonesia

#3 Jun 28, 2012
AMFOAN TIMAU

N.N.?-1689
N.N. 1689-?(son)
Nai Manubait ?-1697
Mano Nassa mentioned 1728
Taiboko before 1749
Dom Bernardo da Costa before 1749-1753 (son)
Tusala (Susale) Taiboko 1753-1779 (brother)
Talnoni Forisa 1779-1808?(son)
Masu Taiboko (Usi Molo) mentioned 1829
Willem Manoh before 1847-1854

TEBENU

Tanof I 1688-1700
Tanof II 1700-37 (nephew?)
Tus Tanof 1737-68 (son)
Marcus Kobe Tanof mentioned 1746-1803 (uncle)
Enus Kobe mentioned 1832 (son)
Salolo Kobe died 1841 (brother)
Kobe Tus 1841-50 (nephew)

GREATER SONBAI

Ama Tuan I or Ama Utang circa 1650-circa 1680
N.N. circa 1680-1686 (?)(son)
Dom Pedro Sonbai or Tomenu mentioned 1704-1726 (son)
Dom Alfonso Salema or Nai Bau Sonbai before 1749-1752 (son)
Don Bernardo 1752-1760 (son)
Albertus Johannes Taffy or Nai Tafin Sonbai 1760-1768 (brother)
Alphonsus Adrianus or Nai Kau Sonbai 1768-1802 (son)
Nai Sobe Sonbai 1808-1867 (son)

AMARASI

Dom António I died 1665
Dom Tomás 1665-after 1672 (brother)
Dona Maria 1660s (sister, titular queen)
N.N. mentioned 1679 (nephew)
Dom António II mentioned 1688
Dom Affonço mentioned 1703
Dom Augusto Fernandes mentioned 1703
Nai Soti mentioned 1714
Dom Luís Hornay de Roza before 1749-1751, died 1752
Dom Affonço Hornay 1751-74 (son)
Rote Ruatefu 1774-1802 (son)
Kiri Lote 1803-before 1832 (son)
Muni before 1832 (son?)
Koro Kefi before 1832-1853 (brother)
OBAMA

Indonesia

#4 Jun 28, 2012
AMANUBAN

Don Michel before 1749-1751
Don Louis I 1751-70 (brother)
Don Jacobus Albertus 1770-86 (son)
Tubani 1786-circa 1808 (cousin)
Don Louis II circa 1808-circa 1824 (son)
Baki circa 1824-1862 (son)

AMBENO

Dom Pedro mentioned 1641
Dom Paulo I ?-1670
Dom Paulo II before 1749-1761
Nai Sitenoni born 1756-1762 (nephew)
Nai Nobe Dom Paulo 1761-after 1764 (son or brother of Dom Paulo II)
Dom Paulo III before 1766-circa 1800 (maybe the same person as above)
Domingos Francisco mentioned 1817-1829 (son; ruling in Citrana,
born 1832-1836)
Dom Paulo IV mentioned 1832

WEHALI

Dom Jacinto Correia mentioned 1756-1757
António de Melo mentioned 1767
Dom Alesu Fernandes circa 1800
A Queen mentioned 1814
Loro Ramaë mentioned 1832
Nai Tei ?-1858

MOTAEL

Dom Gregorio Rodrigues Pereira I mentioned 1726-32
Dom Alexandre Rodrigues Pereira mentioned 1763-1769
Dom Cosme Rodrigues Pereira mentioned 1789 (tenente coronel)
Dom Gregorio Rodrigues Pereira II ?-1820
Dom António da Costa Pereira mentioned 1832-1861
Vemasse (Ade)
N.N. mentioned 1660s (father of Ama Sili or Salomon Speelman)
Dom Tomás mentioned 1720
Dom Cosme de Freitas mentioned 1726
Dom Tomás de Freitas mentioned circa 1769
Dom Duarte de Castro mentioned 1786
Dom Domingos de Freitas Soares ?-1859

LUCA

Dom Sebastião Fernandes mentioned 1703
Dom Sancho Manuel mentioned 1738
Dom Sebastião do Amaral before circa 1769-circa 1789
Dom Tomás do Amaral mentioned 1789 (nephew, tenente general of Belu)
Dom Felix António do Amaral mentioned 1817
Dona Maria Amaral 1826-1850

VIQUEQUE

Dom Matheus da Costa before 1702-1708
N.N.?-1729
Dom Dire dos Santos Pinto mentioned circa 1769
Dom Joaquim de Matos mentioned 1818

SAMORO

Dom António Hornay mentioned 1703-1720
Dom Bernardo Sarmento mentioned 1726
Dom Henrique Hornay Samoro mentioned 1738
Dom Simão (?) mentioned 1761
Dom Cristovão Fereira mentioned 1761 (ruling in Samoro Kecil)
Dom Matheus mentioned 1761 (ruling in Samoro Kecil)
Dom Bernardo Tavares Sarmento mentioned 1766-circa 1769
OBAMA

Indonesia

#5 Jun 28, 2012
MAUBARA

Dom Francisco Xavier mentioned 1726
Dom José Xavier Doutel before 1754-1776
Dom Caleto Xavier Doutel I 1776-1794 (son)
Nyong Mas 1794-?(son)
Dom Caleto II before 1832-1859

SOLOR

Kaicili Pertawi before 1613-1645
Nyai Cili 1646-64 (widow)
Nyai Cili Muda 1664-86 (granddaughter)
Sengaji Cili 1687-1700 (nephew)

LARANTUKA

Dom Constantino before 1625-1661
Dom Luís mentioned 1675
Dom Domingos Vieira mentioned 1702
Olla mentioned 1732-59
Dom Gaspar Dias Vieira Godinho ?-1768 (son)
Dom Manuel Dias Vieira Godinho 1768-?(brother)
Dom Constantino Balantran de Rozari before 1785-1812 (regent)
Dom André Dias Vieira Godinho before 1812 (son of Dom Gaspar)
Dona Lorenza Gonsalvi 1812-?(widow)
Dom Lorenzo Dias Vieira Godinho 1812-1849 (son)

Since: Feb 12

surabaya

#6 Jun 29, 2012
Lama amat loe gak nongol.
Tapi muncul lagi dengan artikel yang menarik........
Catatan: memang terdapat banyak penguasa di sini, namun semuanya tidak saling tunduk. Mereka dipersatukan dengan aliansi yaitu melalui pernikahan dan juga sumpah minum darah(blood oath).
Di pulau timor mereka lebih dikenal sebagai Liurai. Tidak bisa didefinisikan sebagai raja atau kepala suku, karena mereka dibatasi oleh dewan penasehat (katuas).
Bocah

Karawang, Indonesia

#7 Jun 29, 2012
Si Om Obama tau aja nih...

tolong jelasin dong suku2 di sana kebudayaan masyarakat, makanan, tradisi, dan tari tarian apa saja yg ada. sory banyak nanya hehe...

Itu juga kalo gak keberatan ^_^ maklum minim informasi daerah timur ane

Since: Feb 12

surabaya

#8 Jun 29, 2012
Inilah sistem kasta dari Timor.
Liurai: pemimpin eksekutif wilayahnya.
Lia-nain: pimpinan upacara adat
Dato: garis keturunan Liurai / ningrat.
Ema-rai: warga negara biasa.
atan: budak yang didapat dari anak pihak musuh yang ditaklukkan, ema-rai yang dihukum karena diduga memiliki ilmu hitam, dst. Atan tetap diperlakukan secara manusiawi kecuali pada saat upacara tertentu mereka harus melayani tuannya. Status sosial atan dapat menjadi ema-rai. Tergantung pengabdiannya pada sang tuan.
Lutun: gembala setia ternaknya sang liurai dst.

Since: Feb 12

surabaya

#9 Jun 29, 2012
penjajahan portugis
liurai: tetap berkuasa, keluarganya berhak mengenyam pendidikan, berhak mendapatkan nama katolik, mendapatkan pangkat secara militer dari portugis cth:Dom, coronel, capitao mor, dst., memaksa rakyatnya untuk kerja paksa pada portugis, melarang rakyat biasa untuk sekolah(khawatir kalau rakyat makin pintar berarti pengaruh mereka akan berkurang).
Hanya FRETILIN saja merupakan satu-satunya gerakan rakyat yang meng hendaki penghapusan golongan, pemberantasan buta huruf pada golongan miskin, dan lain2. Namun kebanyakan orang2 yang memiliki impian untuk itu justru muncul dari anak2 para liurai(kebanyakan liurai2 yang pernah ditundukkan portugis beratus tahun silam), mereka ialah Nicolau lobato: putra sulung liurai dari bazartete, F.X. Amaral anak dari liurai turiscai, vicente reis anak dari liurai di baucau, ramos horta(mestico namun ibunya tetap dari garis keturunan Liurai), beserta kawan2 mereka lain berkehendak untuk mendirikan sebuah negara dan akhirnya berhasil juga.
amarasi

Semarang, Indonesia

#10 Jul 6, 2012
780% like,,
OBAMA

Indonesia

#11 Jul 6, 2012
DUTCH Opperhoofden and Residents of TIMOR from
1646 to 1832

Hendrick Hendricksz van Oldenburgh (on Solor), February 1646-20 January 1648 (died in office)
Hendrick ter Horst (on Solor), January 1648-February 1654
Jacob Verheyden (on Solor), February 1654-17 September 1655 (killed in battle)
Cornelis Ockersz (on Solor, temporary), 1655
Hendrick ter Horst (on Solor until 1657), 1655-1659
Joseph Margits, 1659-1660
Johan Truytman (commissioner), 1660
Hugo Cuylenburgh, 4 September 1660-March 1665
Anthony Hurt, March 1665-November 1667
Jacob Pietersz van den Kerper, November 1667-25 November 1670(died in office)
Jacob Lidema (temporary), 1670-1672 (died in office)
Jacob van Wijckersloot, March 1672-20 July 1680 (died in office)
Joannes van den Broeck, 21 January 1681-15 April 1683 (died in office)
Jan van Heden 1683-1684 (died in office)
Willem Tange, 1684-1685 (dismissed)
Gerrit Hoofd, 1685-9 July 1686 (died in office)
Willem Moerman, July 1686-April 1687
Arend Verhoeven April 1687-10 November 1687 (died in office)
Willem Moerman November 1687-1698
François van den Eynde, 1698-14 May 1698 (died in office)
Willem Moerman, May 1698-12 March 1699
Joan Focanus, 12 March 1699-1702
Joannes van Alphen, 1702-1706
Didloff Blad, 1706-1712
Reynier Leers, 1712-1714 (dismiss ed)
Isaac Marmer, 1714-5 October 1714 (died in office)
Leendert Grim (temporary), October 1714-1715
Willem van Putten, 1715-1717
Barend van der Swaan, 1717-1721
Hendrick Engelert, 1721-7 December 1725 (died in office)
Balthazar de Moucheron, December 1725-1728 (died in office)
Steven Palm (temporary), 1728-1729
Anthony Hurt, 1729-1730
Gerardus Bernardus Visscher, 1730-6 May 1736
Aart Jansz Peper, 6 May 1736-1739
Pieter Jacob Blok, 1739
Aart Jansz Peper, 1739-1740
Jan Dinnies, 1740-22 October 1740
Christiaan Fredrik Brandenburg (temporary), October 1740-4 July 1741
Anthony Cornelis van Oldenbarnevelt (Tulling), 4 July 1741-30 November 1742 (died in office)
Christiaan Fredrik Brandenburg (temporary), December 1742-1744
Jan Anthony Meulenbeek, 1744-12 October 1746 (killed)
Gilles Jacob Helmmuts (temporary), October 1746-January 1747 (died in office)
Johannes Steenwegh (temporary), January 1747-1747/48
Daniel van der Burgh, 1748-1 March 1754 (died in office)
Elias Jacob Beynon, 1 March 1754-1758
Johannes Andreas Paravicini (commissioner), March-Aug. 1756
Hans Albrecht von Plüskow, 1758-11 November 1761 (killed)
Johan Willem Erland Daniel ter Herbruggen, 1762-1765
Bartholomeus van Voorst, 1765-3 January 1766
Willem Adriaan van Este (temporary), January 1766-1767
Alexander Cornabé, 1767-1772
Barend W. Fokkens, 1772-1777
Willem Adriaan van Este, 1777-1789 (died in office)
Timotheus Wanjon, 1789-1797 (dismissed)
Carel Gratus Greving, 1797-1799
J. Doser (commissaris), 1799-1800
Hans Andries Lofsteth (commissaris), 1800-10 October 1802 (died in office)
Johannes Giesler, 1802-1803 (died in office)
Viertzen (Kurtzen?) 1803-1804?
Pieter Bernardus van Kruijne, 1804-1807
Frans Philip Christiaan Kurtzen (temporary) 1807
Pieter Stopkerb, 1807-1810
Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart, 11 April 1810-22 March 1812
Cornelis Willem Knibbe, 22 March 1812-1812
Watson, 1812
Joseph Burn, 1812-1814 (died in office)
Curtois (temporary), 1814
Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart, 1814-1818
M. Haleweijn (temporary), 1818-1819
Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart, 1819-30 December 1832
OBAMA

Indonesia

#12 Jul 6, 2012
GOVERNORS of PORTUGUESE TIMOR from 1696 to 1832
António de Mesquita Pimentel 1696-1697 (deposed)
António Coelho Guerreiro 1702-1705 (recalled)
Frei Manuel de Santo António (temporary) 1705
Lourenço Lopes (temporary) 1705-1706
Jácome de Morais Sarmento 1706-1710
Manuel de Soto Maior 1710-1714
Manuel Ferreira de Almeida 1714-1715 (died in office)
Domingos da Costa 1715-1718
Francisco de Melo de Castro 1718-1719 (expelled)
Frei Manuel de Santo António 1719-1722
António de Albuquerque Coelho 1722-1725
António Moniz de Macedo 1725-1728
Pedro de Melo 1728-1731
Pedro do Rego Barreto de Gama e Castro 1731-1734
António Moniz de Macedo 1734-1741
António Leonis de Castro 1741-1745
Francisco Xavier Doutel 1745-1748
Manuel Correia de Lacerda 1748-1751 (died in office)
Frei Jacinto de Conceição and João Hornay (interim junta) 1751
Manuel Doutel de Figueiredo Sarmento 1751-1759
Sebastião de Azevedo e Brito 1759-1760 (recalled)
Frei Jacinto de Conceição, Vicente Ferreira de Carvalho, and Dom José of Alas(interim junta) 1760-1761
Frei Francisco de Purificação and Francisco Hornay (interim junta) 1762-1763
Dionísio Gonçalves e Rebelo 1763-1765 (poisoned)
Frei António de São Boaventura and José Rodrigues Pereira (interim junta)1765-1768
António José Teles de Meneses 1768-1776 (moved to Dili 1769)
Caetano de Lemos Teles de Meneses 1776-1779 (recalled)
Lourenço de Brito Correia 1779-1782
João Anselmo de Almeida Soares 1782-1785
João Baptista Vieira Godinho 1785-1788
Feliciano António Nogueira Lisboa 1788-1790
Joaquim Xavier de Morais Sarmento 1790-1794
João Baptista Verquaim 1794-1800
José Joaquim de Sousa 1800-1803
João Vicente Soares da Veiga 1803-1807
António de Mendonça Côrte-Real 1807-1810
António Botelho Homem Bernardes Pessõa 1810 (died in office)
Frei José de Anunciação, Dom Gregório Rodrigues Pereira of Motael, and
Joaquim António Veloso (interim junta) 1810-1812
Vitorio Freire da Cunha Gusmão 1812-1815
José Pinto Alcoforado e Sousa 1815-1820 (died inoffice)
António Caetano Diniz, Padre Bartolomeu Pereira, and Dom Gregório
Rodrigues Pereira of Motael (interim junta 1820)
António Caetano Diniz and Padre Bartolomeu Pereira (interim junta)1820-1821
Manuel Joaquim de Matos Góis 1821-1832 (died in office)
OBAMA

Tangerang, Indonesia

#13 Jul 14, 2012
WEHALI

Wehali (Wehale, Waihali, Veale) is the name of a traditional kingdom at the southern coast of Central Timor, now in the Republic of Indonesia. It is often mentioned together with its neighbouring sister kingdom, as Wewiku-Wehali (Waiwiku-Wehale). Wehali held a position of ritual seniority among the many small Timorese kingdoms.

Geography and society

Wehali is centred at the village of Laran, situated on a fertile plain which is well suited for varied agriculture. It belongs to the South Tetun-speaking area, which is also known as Belu. The southern Tetun have a matrilineal system. At the apex of the political system stood a "great lord" (Nai Bot) who held the title of Maromak Oan ("son of God"), and this title has given by Dutch Colony. His task was ritually passive, in a symbolic sense "female", and he kept an executive "male" regent or assistant by his side, the Liurai ("surpassing the land").

History

According to oral tradition Wehali was the first land that appeared from the waters which once covered the earth, which made it the centre or origin of the world from a Timorese perspective. Other traditions mention a migration from Sina Mutin Malaka (Chinese White Malacca) in ancient times.[1] The historical background of this is not clear, but the account of Antonio Pigafetta of the Magellan expedition, who visited Timor in 1522, confirms the importance of the Wewiku-Wehali kingdom. In the seventeenth century the ruler of Wehali was described as "an emperor, whom all the kings on the island adhere to with tribute, as being their sovereign".[2] He entertained friendly contacts with the Muslim kingdom of Makassar, but his power was checked by devastating invasions by the Portuguese in 1642 and 1665.[3] Wehali was now brought inside the Portuguese sphere of power but appears to have had limited contact with its colonial suzerain.

Dutch East India Company

The Portuguese grip over western Timor receded greatly after 1749, and the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC), which had hitherto been confined to Kupang, expanded its sphere of power over large parts of the island. During the 1750s Wehali approached the VOC, and in 1756 the Liurai Jacinto Correia signed a contract with the Dutch diplomat Johannes Andreas Paravicini. According to this contract the Liurai was the overlord over a large number of Timorese kingdoms, including Dirma, Laclo, Luca, Viqueque, Corara and Banibani.[4] The Dutch hoped that the contract would automatically include most of East Timor in their sphere of power, but the ritual rather than executive authority of Wehali was insufficient for this. In effect, Wehali vacillated between the Dutch and Portuguese sides for the next century.

Partition and later colonial rule

A colonial borderline on Timor was finally agreed on in 1859, which left Wehali on the Dutch side. A Dutch official was posted in Atapupu on the north coast of Belu in 1862, but the south coast was not surveyed by the colonial authorities before 1898. Brief military clashes took place in 1900 and 1906. The Dutch proceeded to restructure the administrative divisions of Belu in 1915-16, trying to use traditional rulers as zelfbestuurders (rajas under colonial surveillance). The Maromak Oan, Baria Nahak, died in 1925, and the Dutch unsuccessfully tried to use his nephew Seran Nahak as Raja of Belu in 1925-30. After the achievement of independence for Indonesia in 1949, the traditional forms of governance were phased out, but the traditional elite groups still retain an amount of local importance.
OBAMA

Tangerang, Indonesia

#14 Jul 14, 2012
AMABI

Amabi was a traditional principality in West Timor in the currently East Nusa Tenggara province of Indonesia. From at least the 17th century to 1917, Amabi played a role in the rivalries between the Portuguese and Dutch colonials on Timor Island.

History

According to traditional accounts, the dynastic line of Amabi was related to the leading West Timorese kingdom of Sonbai, and to the Tetun kingdom of Wehali in south-central Timor. Through the effort of Dominican missionary in the early 17th century, it was tied to Portuguese interests on Timor. In 1655, however, the king of Amabi, together with that of Sonbai, switched sides and made an alliance with the Dutch East India Company (VOC), which had established itself in Kupang two years previously. The Dutch and their new allies soon proved particularly unsuccessful against the Portuguese clients on Timor. In the fall of 1657 the king of Amabi was killed by the latter at the battle of Gunung Mollo in the interior of West Timor. In September 1658 a large part of the Amabi population fled to Kupang in order to escape their enemies, and were permitted by the Dutch to settle close to the European fort.[1] Part of the population stayed in the interior. This congregation, Amabi Oefeto, was subjected to the Amarasi principality, which in turn was a vassal of Portugal.

The Amabi community of refugee turned out to be loyal subordinated allies of the VOC. Together with the principalities of Kupang, Sonbai Kecil, Amfoan and Taebenu, they constituted the backbone of Dutch strategy on Timor. During much of the seventeenth and 18th centuries they waged small-scale warfare against the Portuguese client principalities, in particular Amarasi. This role was less crucial after 1749, when the Portuguese grip on West Timor was lost. Still, in the late 19th century Amabi was considered the most powerful among the local allies of the Dutch colonial government. When the Dutch implemented full control over the inland territories of West Timor in the early 20th century, the protective role of the small Amabi principality became obscure. Through an administrative reorganization, Amabi was merged with four other principalities in 1917, into the zelfbesturend landschap (self-ruling territory) of Kupang. Up to 1962, the ex-ruler of Amabi held the function of fettor (sub-ruler) of his old lands. In that year, the Indonesian republican government definitely abolished the system of hereditary princes. In 1949, the population of Amabi stood at 10,767 persons.

List of rulers

Sebastião mentioned 1652
Saroro Neno mentioned 1655
Ama Kefi Meu 1666-1704
Ama Kefi 1704-1725 (son)
Loti 1725-1732 (son)
Nai Balas 1732-1755 (brother)
Balthazar Loti 1755-1790 (son of Loti)
Osu I 1791-1795 (son)
Slolo 1795-c. 1797
Afu Balthazar c. 1797-before 1824
Arnoldus Adriaan Karel Loti before 1824-1834 (son)
Osu II 1834-1859 (brother)
Mano 1859-1883 (nephew)
Lelo 1884-1894 (son)
Kusa 1895-1901 (second cousin)
Arnoldus 1901 (son of Lelo)
Junus Amtaran 1901-1903
Kase Kome 1903-1912 (nephew of Osu II)
Jacob Ch. Amabi 1912-1917 (son)
Antonio Bemanas

Canberra, Australia

#16 Jul 14, 2012
Mantap juga pengetahuan dan analysis Rainain tentang sejarah Timor-Leste. Sedikit komentar bahwa meskipun para pelopor Fretilin memang banyak yang berlatarbelakang keturunan liurai, justru mereka melepaskan diri dari atribut itu dengan memeluk ideologi kerayatan seperti yang tercermin dalam ideologi MAUBERE. Sehingga rakyat berbondong-bondong meninggalkan liurai atau partai-partai yag pro status-quo untuk mendukung Fretilin, sehingga mampu menggerakkan perlawanan melawan tentara Indonesia selama 24 tahun.
OBAMA

Indonesia

#17 Jul 15, 2012
AMARASI

Amarasi was a traditional princedom in West Timor, in present-day Indonesia. It had an important role in the political history of Timor during the 17th and 18th century, being a client state of the Portuguese colonialists, and later subjected to the Netherlands East Indies.

Early history

The origins of Amarasi are recounted in various legends. The oldest available version says that the dynastic line originated from Wehali, the traditional political navel of Timor in Belu. A member of a local family, Nafi Rasi, accidentally broke a valuable bowl and was forced too flee the wrath of his siblings. With his followers he went to Beboki-Insana to the north of Wehali, and thence to the south coast of West Timor. There he founded a princedom with help of firearms that he had acquired in Beboki-Insana, which in turn lay close to the land of the Topasses (Portuguese mestizo population). Roaming groups from Belu arrived and strengthened the manpower of Nafi Rasi.[1] In spite of its supposed Belunese origins, the population belonged to the Atoni group, speaking a dialect of Dawan.

European sources confirm that Amarasi was a powerful domain in western Timor by the early 17th century. It was influenced by Catholicism through Dominican missionaries in the 1630s, and turned an important client of the Portuguese Topasses. In consequence, Amarasi fought the Dutch East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC), which attempted to expand its power on Timor, attracted by the stands of commercially valuable sandalwood. A sizeable Dutch expedition led by Arnold de Vlaming van Oudshoorn (1656) was soundly defeated by Amarasi and the Topasses.[2] For almost a century after this event, Amarasi remained a Portuguese vassal, during much of the time fighting the Timorese clients of the VOC in the Kupang area in westermost Timor. This was a low-scale warfare that took the form of headhunting raids.[3] Amarasi was in fact counted as one of the principal props of Portuguese authority on Timor in this era.

Under Dutch rule

In 1749 the Amarasi soldiers were pushed to participate in a large-scale military campaign led by the Topasses against the Dutch in Kupang. In the resulting Battle of Penfui the Topasses were routed by the VOC forces, while Amarasi fled the field and subsequently submitted to the VOC. After a short time, in 1752, Amarasi attempted to withdraw from the new Dutch suzerainty, and rejoin the Portuguese camp. However, the princedom was badly defeated by the other Dutch clients, its king committed suicide and a large part of the manpower was killed or enslaved. The remaining Amarasi congregation was allowed after some years to settle in its old lands. From this point, the weakened princedom remained attached to Dutch interests until the 1940s.

By the 1820s, Amarasi consisted of three parts: Buwarein under the main ruler (Nai Jufa Naek), Talba, and Houmen, the latter two under district lords (Nai Jufa). Later in the 19th century a further division resulted in five parts. The district lords were in practice the near-equals of the central ruler or raja, and were in turn dependent on the various Amaf (local headmen). In 1930 the population of Amarasi was 16,832 people, and its area was an estimated 740 square kilometers.[6] During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia (1942–1945) the raja of Amarasi, H.A. Koroh, was accused of collaborating with the Japanese, who recruited comfort women and conscript labourers (romusha) from the local population. After the Japanese capitulation in 1945, the raja kept a defiant attitude against the returning Dutch authorities.[7] In the first years after the achievement of Indonesian independence in 1949, the Amarasi princedom survived as a self-ruling territory or swapraja, until 1962, when the unitary Indonesian republic abolished traditional forms of governance in this region.
OBAMA

Indonesia

#18 Jul 15, 2012
Today Amarasi is included in the kabupaten (regency) Kupang, and constitutes the kecamatan (districts) Amarasi, Amarasi Barat, Amarasi Selatan, and Amarasi Timur. The centre of the region is the village Baun, where the last residence of the former rajas can still be seen.
OBAMA

Indonesia

#19 Jul 15, 2012
SONBAI

Sonbai (also spelt Sonnebay, Sonba'i, or Sonbait) was an Indonesian princely dynasty that reigned over various parts of West Timor from at least the 17th century until the 1950s. It was known as the most prestigious princedom of the Atoni people of West Timor, and is the subject of many myths and stories.

According to most legends, Sonbai originated from Wehali in the Tetun-speaking central parts of Timor, the classical political and cultural centre of gravitation on Timor. The ancestor of the line, who was a brother of the Liurai (ruler) of Wehali, migrated to the highlands of West Timor, where he married a daughter of a local Atoni lord, Kune, and inherited his lands. The various Atoni principalities tended to relate themselves genealogically to Sonbai, although they did not acknowledge him politically as their lord. Other legends assert that the first Sonbai descended from the sky.

Historically, Sonbai is documented in European colonial sources since 1649. At that time it was a politically expansive realm which allied with the Portuguese, who had by this time started to establish their direct influence on Timor. In 1655 Sonbai switched sides and made a contract with the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC), the enemies of the Portuguese colonialists. Serious defeats in 1657-58 at the hands of the Portuguese Topasses, led to a division of the realm. One part of the Sonbai population migrated to Kupang, where the Dutch kept a fort since 1653.[2] This group, known as Lesser Sonbai (Sonbai Kecil), was one of the so-called five loyal allies of the Dutch, together with the princes of Kupang-Helong, Amabi, Amfoan and Taebenu. This group was finally merged with other principalities to form the larger zelfbesturend landschap (self-ruling territory) of Kupang in 1917. The new Kupang principality was governed by members of the Nisnoni family, a side-branch of Sonbai, surviving the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in 1942-45 and the Indonesian Revolution in 1945-49. Its population was 49,168 inhabitants in 1949.[3] In 1955 the new Indonesian republic ended the rule of governing princes (raja) in Kupang.

In the interior of West Timor, a Sonbai principality remained under Portuguese suzerainty after 1658. The rulers, known to the Europeans as "emperor", usually had an inactive role, while the executive governance was done by their main lieutenants of the Kono family. Therefore the inland principality was often known as Amakono (Ama = father). The realm was also known as Greater Sonbai (Sonbai Besar). In 1748-49 the ruler of Greater Sonbai defected from Portugal and escaped to Kupang, submitting to the Dutch. Later on, in 1782, the Greater Sonbai congregation again broke with the Dutch and re-established an autonomous realm in the interior. It approximately covered the regions Fatuleu, Mollo and Miomaffo. After 1867 this realm began to break up, as minor rajas asserted their independence. The last pretender-ruler was captured by Dutch colonial troops in 1906, bringing a definite end to the principality.
OBAMA

Indonesia

#20 Jul 15, 2012
Sonbai Besar or Greater Sonbai was an extensive princedom of West Timor, in present-day Indonesia, which existed from 1658 to 1906 and played an important role in the history of Timor.

Origins of the polity

The origins of the princedom are intimately connected with the struggle between the Dutch and the Portuguese for mastery of the island. The united Sonbai (Sonba'i, Sonnebay) realm, the traditionally most prestigious polity among the Atoni people of West Timor, allied with the Portuguese in 1649-1655, and then with the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC) in 1655-1658. After a series of defeats at the hands of the Portuguese Eurasians or Topasses in 1657-1658, Sonbai broke up in two parts. One group migrated to Kupang where the Dutch had their base, where they formed the Sonbai Kecil princedom. Another group, Sonbai Besar, stayed in the inland of West Timor under Portuguese surveillance.

Traditional rulership

The Sonbai Besar congregation was headed by a ruler known to the Europeans as emperor (keizer, emperador). He was also known as Atupas (he who sleeps), Neno Anan (son of heaven) and Liurai (surpassing the earth). The other Atoni rulers related themselves to him in symbolic kinship terms, which was anchored through various origin stories. In accordance with Timorese custom, the ruler was an inactive, in a symbolical sense "female" (feto) figure. At his side was a "male" (mone) executive regent of the Kono family, called Uis Kono or Ama Kono. Because of this arrangement, the princedom was often known under the name Amakono. The Uis Kono in particular governed the north-eastern part of the realm, later known as Miomaffo. The central area, Mollo, was governed by co-regents of the Oematan family, and in Fatuleu further to the west a number of lesser lords dominated, among them Takaip. Under the major lords (usif) were the amaf naek (great fathers) who headed various districts, and under them the amaf (fathers) in the various villages.

Defection from the Portuguese

The relation between the Topasses and the Sonbai Besar princedom oscillated between cooperation and hostility, and did not entail a colonial rule in the conventional sense. The lords of the princedom delivered sandalwood to the coast where it was picked up by Portuguese and other vessels, and brought to Batavia or Macao. There were large-scale conflicts with the Topasses in 1711-1713 and 1722. In 1748 the Sonbai ruler Alfonso Salema and the Atoni kings of Amfoan and Amanuban rebelled and then fled to the Dutch in Kupang. Alfonso Salema brought with him a large part of his followers. This was a major catalyst for a full-scale confrontation between the VOC post in Kupang and the Topass leader Gaspar da Costa. In the Battle of Penfui in November 1749 the attacking Topass army was crushed by the VOC-affiliated forces of Kupang, and a large part of West Timor fell under Dutch influence.

Relations with the Dutch

The relation between Sonbai Besar and its new Dutch suzerain turned to become conflict-ridden. Alfonso Salema was deposed and exiled by the VOC in 1752 on suspicion of treason, and in 1782 his grandson Alphonsus Adrianus established his authority in the inland independently of the Europeans. After his death in 1819 his son and successor Nai Sobe Sonbai II had great difficulties maintaining his position, and slowly had to assemble power anew under a long and troubled rule (1819-1867). There was an open state of warfare with the Dutch in Kupang in 1847-1850 and 1855-1857, without the colonial authorities being able to come to grips with the emperor.
OBAMA

Indonesia

#21 Jul 15, 2012
After his death in 1819 his son and successor Nai Sobe Sonbai II had great difficulties maintaining his position, and slowly had to assemble power anew under a long and troubled rule (1819-1867). There was an open state of warfare with the Dutch in Kupang in 1847-1850 and 1855-1857, without the colonial authorities being able to come to grips with the emperor. After his decease the Sonbai Besar realm began to dissolve, this time irreversibly. Miomaffo, Mollo and the lordships of Fatuleu made their own contracts with the Dutch colonial authorities. The last emperor, Nai Sobe Sonbai III (r. 1885-1906) was little more than a pretender. After an incident he was pursued and captured by a Dutch troop in early 1906. Nai Sobe Sonbai III was banished to Sumba and later died on Timor in 1922. In modern West Timor he is considered an anti-colonial hero and is honoured with a monument in central Kupang

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