How a glacier could thaw dangerous India and Pakistan freeze

Apr 25, 2012 Full story: Christian Science Monitor 25

Following a deadly avalanche in the disputed Siachen Glacier area, India and Pakistan have signaled openness to talks.

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Anonymous

Europe

#1 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 5

WHY A MEANINGFUL TYPE OF CLASSIFICATION IS NEEDED FOR A GREAT VARIETY OF LIFE?WHAT ARE THE BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION.[D-A]
A need for classification
General classification
Basis of classification

Define species.What is the criterion to recognise a species?[D-A]

What are the two kingdoms into which living things are divided?describe briefly the units of classification.[D-B]
Give the biological classification of corn plant.

[Nomenclature]
WRITE A DETAILED NOTE ON BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE?WHY THIS SYSTEM WAS INTRODUCED AND WHAT IS THE PROBLEM OF USING COMMON NAME?[D-B, D-C]
General system
Different systems of classification
Examples
Contribution of Carlous linnaeus
Binomial nomenclature

[Two to five kingdom classification systems]
Describe briefly the three kingdom classification of Ernst Hackel[D-C]
Two kingdom classification
Problems in this system
Three kingdom classification
Give the contribution of Chatton?

DESCRIBE THE FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION OF ROBERT WHITTEKAR.[D-C, D-D]
Five kingdom classification
Kingdom monera,examples
Kingdom protista,examples
Kingdom plantae,examples
Kingdom funji,examples
Kingdom animila,examples

Describe briefly the classification of margulis and schwartz.[D-E]
[Viruses]
WRITE A BRIEF NOTE ON VIRUSES?[D-E]
Virus-the venum
DISCUSS BRIEFLY HOW THE FIRST VACCINE WAS OBTAINED BY EDWARD JENNER?[D-E]
Contribution of edward jenner

DESCRIBE BRIEFLY HOW VIRUSES WERE DISCOVERED AND PURIFIED?[D-E]
Discovery of virus
Isolation and purification of virus

Write short note on bacteria eater[D-E, D-F]

DESCRIBE BRIEFLY THE CHARACTERISTICS AND STRUCTURE OF VIRUS.[D-F]
Characteristics
Size of the virus
Nature of virus
Dependence
Structure
What are prions?

[Life cycle of bacteriophages]
Give the life cycle of a virus in the cells of bacteria.[D-F,D-G]
Types of bacteriophages
Structure
Entry of bacteriophage inside the bacterial cell
Attachment
Penetration
Lytic cycle
Master-slave relationship
Lysis
Lysogenic cycle
Host-guest relationship
Induction
Anonymous

United States

#2 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 5

[Classification of viruses]
HOW VIRUSES ARE CLASSIFIED?[D-H]
Shape
Classification of viruses on the basis of their host
Retroviruses

[Viral disease]
WRITE NOTE ON SOME DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES WHICH ARE COMMOM IN PAKISTAN.[D-H, D-I]
Smallpox
Occurrence
Causes
Prevention
Herpes simplex
Virus causing
Causes
Influenza
Mumps and measles
Virus causing
Occurrence
Poliomyelitis
Virus causing
Occurrence
Shape of virus

WHAT ARE RETROVIRUSES?IN WHAT WAY THESE VIRUSES ARE HARMFUL?[D-I]
Retroviruses
Shape
Infection causing
Special feature

WRITE NOTE ON:[D-I,D-J,D-K]
AIDS
Symptoms
Occurrence
HIV
Prevention from AIDS
HEPATITIS
Symptoms
Types of hepatitis
Hepatitis A C B
Vaccines

EXERCISE [D-L,D-M,D-N]
Anonymous

Europe

#3 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 6

WHICH TYPE OF ORGANISMS ARE PLACED IN KINGDOM PROKARYOTAE?WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CATEGORIES OF BACTERIA?[E-A]
Eubacteria
Archaeobacteria

[Discovery of bacteria]
WRITE NOTE ON DISCOVERY OF BACTERIA?[E-A, E-B]
Contribution of leeuwenhoek
Discovery of animalcules
Contribution of Louis Pasteur

WRITE A DETAIL NOTE ON GERM THEORY OF DISEASE.[E-B]
Postulates of Robert Koch
In what ways Robert Koch and his colleagues helped in the field of microbiology?

[Occurrence of Bacteria]
Where does bacteria generally occur?[E-B]
[Structure of bacteria]
WRITE A DETAILED NOTE ON:[E-B, E-C]
Size
Huge bacteria
Shape of bacteria
Cocci
Diplococcus
Streptococcus
Tetrad
Sarcina
Staphylococcus
Bacilli
Bacillus
Streptobacillus
Diplobacillus
Spiral
Exceptions

DESCRIBE IN DETAIL THE STRUCTURE OF BACTERIAL CELL.[E-C, E-D]
Flagella
Atrichous bacteria
Monotrichous
Lophotrichous
Amphitrichous
Peritrichous
Function of Flagella
Functions as Propellor
PILI
Functions of pili
The cell envelope
Capsule
Slime
Cell wall

Compare gram positive and gram negative bacteria with the help of a table?[E-D,E-E]

[E-E, E-F]
Divisions of bacteria
Composition of cell wall
Classification of bacteria on basis of cell wall
Cell membrane
Function of cell membrane
Cytoplasmic matrix
Nucleoid
Plasmid
Ribosomes
Mesosomes
Granules and storage bodies
Spores
Cysts

[Nutrition in bacteria]
WRITE AN ACCOUNT OF NUTRITION IN BACTERIA.[E-F]
Heterotrophic
Autotrophic
Photosythetic bacteria
Chemosynthetic bacteria

[Respiration of bacteria]
DESCRIBE BACTERIA UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADS:[E-F]
Aerobic
Anerobic
Facultative
Microaerophilic

[Growth and reproduction]
Describe briefly growth and reproduction of bacteria[E-G]
Asexual reproduction
Phases in bacterial growth
Lag phase
Log phase
Stationary phase
Death/decline phase
Sexual reproduction in bacteria

[Importance of bacteria]
Discuss the importance of bacteria in detail[E-G]
Ecological importance
Economic importance

[Control of bacteria]
WRITE AN ACCOUNT OF DIFFERENT METHODS USED FOR CONTROLLING MICROBES.[E-H]
Physical methods
Sterilization
High temperature
Heat
Radiations
Chemical methods
Chemotherapeutic method
In what way microbicidial effect differs from microbistatic effect?
Microbicidial
Microbistatic
What is mode of action of different chemical and physical agents to control bacterial growth?

[Immunization and vaccination]
What are the various methods used to prevent and control diseases?[E-H]
Describe briefly the historical event involved in the development of vaccines???[E-H, E-I]
Contribution of Pasteur
Discovery of pasteur
Vaccination
Edward Jenner

[Use and Misuse of antibiotics]
WHAT ARE ANTIBIOTIC?DISCUSS THEIR USE AND MISUSE?[E-I]
Use and misuse of antibiotic
Misuse of antibiotics
Misuse of penicillin
Misuse of streptomycin
Misuse of tertracycline
Careful use of antiobiotics

[Characteristics of cyanobacteria]
DESCRIBE BRIEFLY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CYANOBACTERIA?[E-I, E-J]
Shape and Size
Photosynthetic
Pigments
Food
Reproduction

[Economic importance]
GIVE THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA?[E-J]
Useful aspects
Harmful aspects
What are super blue green algae?

[Nostoc]
DESCRIBE GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF CYANOBACTERIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NOTOC?[E-J]
Habitat and occurrence
Structure

WRITE A DETAILED NOTE ON REPRODUCTION OF NOSTOC.[E-K]
Hormogonia
Akinete
Spore formation

EXERCISE [E-L, E-M, E-N]
Anonymous

United States

#4 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 7
DISCUSS THE IMPORTANT FEATURES OF PROTISTS.WHY ARE PROTISTS DIFFICULT TO CLASSIFY?[F-A]
Evolutionary relationship
Characteristics
Major groups
[Historical perspective]
Discuss the historical perspective of kingdom protista??
John hogg
Ernst haeckal,hackel
Herbert copeland
Margulis and schwartz
[Diversity among protists]
WHY MANY BIOLOGISTS REGARD PROTISTS AS POLYPHYLETIC GROUP OF ORGANISMS?[F-B]
[Major group of protists]
Summarize various group of protozoa the animal like protists with the help of a table??[F-B]
Protozoa animal like protists
Some groups of protozoa
Describe briefly major groups of animal like protists??[F-C, F-D, F-E]
Amoebas
The giant amoeba
Zooflagellates
Trichonymphas
Trypanosoma
Choanoflagellates
Ciliates
Paramecium
Other ciliates features
Vacuole
Nucleus
Sexual process
Foraminiferans and actinopods
Apicomplexans
Plasmodium
[The algae plant] like protists
Discuss general characteristic of algae??[F-E]
Algae
Type of growth
Types of pigments
Life cycle
Habitat
Give the classification of algae.discuss each of the group briefly??[F-E, F-F, F-G]
The euglenoids
Nutrition
Reproduction
Dinoflagellates
Diatoms
Shells
Abundance
Reproduction
Brown algae
Size
Habitat
Reproduction
Red algae
Structure
Reproduction
Green algae
Mode of nutrition
Evolutionary history
Chlorella
Summarize the classification of algae with the help of a table??[F-G]
Classification of the photosynthetic protocist
[Importance of algae]
Discuss briefly the importance of algae??[F-G, F-H]
Food
Source of oxygen
Food of human beings
Manure
Commercial use
Medicinal value
Ecological importance
Source of fuel
[Fungus like protists]
What are funji?give the names of two main groups of funji??[F-H]
Describe structure and reproduction of slime molds??
Reproduction
Example
Write note on oomycotes??[F-H, F-I]
Example
What feature distinguish oomycotes from funji?[F-I]
EXERCISE [F-J,F-K,F-L]
Anonymous

United States

#5 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 8

Write a short note on funji??[G-A]
Disadvantages
Advantages
Kingdom of recyclers

Discuss taxonomic status of funji??[G-A, G-B]
Resemblence between plants and animals
Nuclear mitosis

[The body of fungus]
Describe briefly the vegetative status of the body of the fungus??[G-B]
Mycelium
Hyphae
Septate Hyphae
Non septate hyphae
Nuclei
In what way fungus is the largest organism??

[Nutrition in funji]
Write a detailed note on nutrition in funji??[G-B,G-C,G-D]
Absorptive heterotrophs
Sabrobic funji
Parasitic funji
Obligate funji
Facultative funji
Predatory funji
Paralysing
Formation of constriction
Mutualistic funji
Lichen
Interaction
Types
Mycorrhizae
Interaction
Types of mycorrhizae
Endomycorrhizae
Ectomycorrhize
Write a short note on habitats of funji??

[Reproduction]
Give an account of reproduction in funji??[G-D,G-E]
Asexual reproduction
Spores
Germination
Conidia
Fragmentation
Budding
Sexual reproduction
Plasmogamy
Types of spores

[Classification of funji]
Differentiate four main groups of funji and give two examples of each group with the help of a table??[G-F]
Classification of funji

Describe briefly zygomycota and ascomycota??[G-F,G-G]
Zygomycota
Reproduction
Exampled
Ascomycota(ascomycetes or sac-funji)
Habitat
Spore
Ascocarps
Yeasts

Write note on basidiomycota??[G-G]
Basidium
Life cycle
Examples
Smut

Write note on deuteromycota??[G-H]
A heterogenous group
Examples
Penicillium
What is parasexuality?
What are rusts?

[Land adaptations of funji]
How funji are adapted for life on land??
Or
State various features of funji that adopt to terrestial mode of life??[G-I]
Cell wall
Rhizoids
Anchorage
Absorption
Thick walled spores
Elimination of flagellated reproductive cells
Sporangiophore
Resistant to cold

[Importance of funji]
Write an essay on importance of funji??[G-I,G-J,G-K]
Commercial importance
Economic gains due to funji (beneficial aspects)
Food
Fermentation
Drugs and antibiotics
Penicillin
Lovastatin
Ergotine
Griseofulvin
Dyes
Biological research
Industries
Economic losses due to funji (harmful aspects)
Plant disease
Rust and smut
Potato blight
Powdery mildew
Dutch elm tree
Human diseases
Histoplasmosis
Ringworm and athlete's foot
Allergy
Meningitis
Genital diseases
Food poisoning
Ergotism
Spoilage

[Ecological importance]
What is the ecological importance of saprotrophic funji of lichens and mycorrhizae??[G-K,G-L]
Mycorrhizae
Lichens
Bioremediation

What maked shower curtain sometimes pink?[G-L]

Exercise [G-L,G-M,G-N]
Anonymous

United States

#6 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 9

What is phylogenetic system of classification??why this system is better than other system of classifications??[H-A]
Which type of organisms are placed in plantae??[H-A]

[Classification of plantae]
In what two main categories the organisms of kingdom plantae are divided??give the brief outline of classification of kingdom plantae??[H-A,H-B]
An outline of classification of plantae

[Division bryophyta]
What are bryophytes??and why these plants are found only in shady places??[H-B]
Why bryophytes are condidered as amphibians of plants?

What does alternation of generation refer in plant?define gametophyte and sporophyte?how are these stages reproductively dissimilar??[H-B,H-C]
Alternation of generation
Sporophyte and gametophyte generations
Sporophytes generation
Gametophyte generation
Comparison with the adult animal
Reproductive dissimilarity between gametophyte and sporophyte generation

Write a detailed note on structure and reproduction of bryophytes??[H-C]
Structure
Reproduction
Formation of embryo
Alternation of generation

List the four distinguishing characters of bryophytes??[H-D]

[Adaptation to land habitat]
Describe the adaptations for life on land in bryophytes??[H-D]
Compact multicellular body
Development of photosynthetic chambers
Formation of Rhizoid
Evolution of heterogamy
Protection of reproductive cells
Embryo formation
Alternation of generation

[Classification of bryophytes]
Describe briefly the classification of bryophytes??[H-D,H-E,H-F]
Hepaticeae
Habitat
Structure
Sex organs
Musci
Habitat
Gametophyte
Sex organs
Fertilization
Alternation is of generation
Sporophyte
Anthocerotae
Gametophyte generation
Sporophyte generation

[Alternation of generations]
Write a note on alternation of generation??[H-F,H-G]
Definition
Gametophyte
Sporophyte

[The significance of alternation of generation]
Discuss the significance of alternation of generation??[H-G]

[Divisions tracheophytes]
What are tracheophyte?discuss the characters evolution of which enable vascular in general and flowering plants in particular predominant flora of land??[H-G]
Tracheophytes
Successful group
Evolutionary history
Characteristics of vascular plant

[Evolution of leaf]
How and when leaf evolved??What are two basic types of leaves??discuss in detail the steps involved in the evolution of leaf and give its importance in vascular plants??[H-H]
Primitive leaves
Types of leaves
Microphylls
Megaphylls
Evolution of leaf
Steps involved in the evolution of a megaphyll leaf
Overtopping
Planation
Webbing
Importance of leaf in vascular plants

Briefly describe the four subdivisions of tracheophytes??[H-H,H-I,H-J]
Psilopsida(Psilophyta)
Stem
Rhizome
Aerial portion
Rproductive organs
Examples
Gametophyte
Lycopsida
Sporophyte
Ligule
Club mosses
Types of sporophytes
Sphenopsida
Sporophyte
Pteropsida
Filicineae
Gymnospermae
Angiospermae
Anonymous

Europe

#7 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 9
[Class Filicinae]
Write a short note on class filicinae??[H-J,H-K]
Circinate venation
Habitat
Occurrence
Examples
[Adiantum]
Describe life cycle of adiantum in detail??[H-K,H-L]
Stem
Root
Leaves
Sori
Life cycle
Sporangium
Prothallus
Antheridium and archegonium
Fertilization
[Evolution of seed habit]
What are spermatophytes??when seed evolved??[H-L]
Development of seed
Discuss the various steps involved in the evolution of seed??[H-L,H-M]
Evolution of heterospory
Retention and germination of megaspore within the megasporangium
Development of protective layers around megasporangium
Reduction to a single functional megaspore per sporangium
Development of an embryo sac within the sporangium
Modification of distal end of megasporangium for pollen capture
Importance of evolution of seed
[Class gymnospermae]
Write a short note on gymnosperms??[H-M]
[Pinus Life cycle]
Describe the life cycle of pinus in detail??[H-M,H-N]
Sporophyte generation
Spore production
Female and male cone formation
Gametophyte formation
Microgametophyte
Pollen grain
Megagametophyte
Pollination
Seed formation
Comparison of the two generation
[Class angiospermae]
Write a short note on angiosperms??[H-N]
[Life cycle of an angiospermic plant]
Describe in detail the life cycle of an angiosperm??[H-O,H-P]
Flower
Sepals and petals
Stamens
Carpel
Development of male gametophyte
Formartion of female gametophyte
Fertilization
Double fertilization
Seed formation
Alternation of generation
[Classification of angiosperms]
What are angiosperms??Describe briefly its classification??[H-P]
Rosaceae
Give the comparison of dicot and monocot plants with the help of a table??[H-P]
Give the general characters and economic importance of family rosaceae??[H-P,H-Q,H-R]
Numerical strength
Vegetative characters
Floral characters
Inflorescence
Flowers
Calyx
Corolla
Androecium
Gynoecium
Placentation basal
Economic importance
Fruits
Wood
Tobacco pipes
Medicinal
Example
[Solanaceae]
Give the general characters and economic importance of family solanaceae??[H-R,H-S]
Numerical strength
Vegetative characters
Floral characters
Inflorescence
Flowers
Calyx
Corolla
Androecium
Gynoecium
Placentation
Economic importance
Food
Vegetables
Commercial value
Drugs
Ornamental
Example
[Fabaceae]
Describe the characters and economic importance of family Fabaceae??[H-S,H-T]
Numerical strength
Vegetative characters
Floral characters
Inflorescence
Flowers
Calyx
Corolla
Androecium
Gynoecium
Placentation
Economic importance
Pulses
Oils
Dry fruit
Vegetables
Medicine
Gums and resins
Fodder
Furnishing
Dyes
Soil fertility
Ornamenta
Other uses
Examples
Anonymous

Europe

#8 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 9

[Caesalpiniaceae]
Give the general characters and economic importance of family caesalpiniaceae??[H-T,H-U]
Numerical strength
Vegetative characters
Floral characters
Inflorescence
Flowers
Calyx
Corolla
Androecium
Gynoecium
Placentation
Economic importance
Medicinal
Ornamental
Food
Examples

[Mimosaceae]
Characterize family mimosaceae and give its economic importance??[H-U,H-V]
Numerical strength
Vegetative characters
Floral characters
Inflorescence
Flowers
Calyx
Corolla
Androecium
Gynoecium
Placentation
Fruit
Economic importance
Wood
Gum
Dyes
Medicinal
Ornamentals
Shelter belts
Examples

[Poaceae]
Describe the characters of family poaceae and give its economic importance??[H-V,H-W]
Numerical strength
Vegetative characters
Floral characters
Inflorescence
Spikelet
Flowers
Perianth
Androecium
Gynoecium
Fruits
Economic importance
Food
Fodder
Bamboos
Oils
Medicinal
Beverages
Ropes
Examples

Exercise[H-Y,H-Z,H-ZA]
Anonymous

Europe

#9 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 10
[Introduction]
Differentiate the following terms??[I-A]
Metazoa
Protozoa
Protoctista
Which type of animal are placed in Kingdom animilia??[I-A]
Size
Characteristics
Development of complexity in animals [I-B]
In what ways animals are most impressive multicellular organism?[I-B]
In what major groups animals are divided??[I-B]
Division on basis of tissues arrangement
Parazoa
Eumetazoa
Grade bilateria
Division of kingdom animilia on the bases of body cavity
Acoelomata
Pseudocoelomata
Coelomata
[Grade radiata]
Write a short note on grade radiata??[I-B]
[Grade bilateria]
Write a short note on grade bilateria??[I-C]
Bilateral symmetry
Feature of this grade
Bilateral to radial symmetry
In what ways proterostomia differs from deuterostomia??
What is the basic difference between spiral and radial cleavage patterns?[I-D]
[Diploblastic and triploblastic organisation]
Differentiate between diploblastic and triploblastic animal??[I-D]
[Acoelomates,pseudocoelomates and coelomates]
How triploblastic animals are divided on the bases of coelom??
Or
Describe briefly the following groups of animals??[[I-D,I-E]
Acoelomates
Pseudocoelomates
Coelomates
[Parazoa]
Describe briefly parazoa.How this group differs from protozoa and metazoa??[I-E]
[Phylum Porifera]
Discuss the Salient features of phylum porifera??[I-E,I-F]
General characters
Simple organization
Asymmetrical
Histological aspects
Size
Spongocoel
Pores-Canal system
Simple organization
Food
Locomotion
Coordination
Skeleton
Reproduction
Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Examples
Sycon
Leucoselenia
Euplectella
Spongilla
In what ways sponges are important??[I-F]
[Grade Radiata]
Phylum coelenterata/Cnidaria-diplobla stic animals
Characterize phylum Cnidaria??[I-F, I-G]
General characters of coelenterates
Habitat
Size
Symmetry
Diploblastic
Mesoglea
Gastrovascular digestive system
Polymorphism
Tentacles
Nematocyst
Nervous System
Skeleton
Colonial
Reproduction
Alternation of generation
Common examples of coelenterates
Hydra
Obelia
Aurelia (jelly fish)
Actinia (sea anemone)
Madrepora
[Polymorphism]
Write a short note on polymorphism??[I-G,I-H)
[Coral reefs]
Write a short note on coral reef??[I-H]
[Grade bilateria]
Describe the characteristics of phylum platyhelmithes??[I-H, I-I]
General characters of platyhelminthes
Flat body
Organization
Symmetry
Habitat
Size
Digestive system
Excretory system
Nervous system
Reduced organs
Absorption
Locomotion
Reproduction
Development
Examples
Dugesia
Fasciola
Taenia
Anonymous

Europe

#10 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 10

[Adaptations for parasitic mode of life]
In what ways platyhelminthis are adapted for parasitic mode of life??[I-I]
Resistant cuticle
Adhesive organ
Poorly developed muscular and nervous system
Simple digestive system
Complex reproducing system
Complex Life cycle

Write a short note infestation and disinfestation of tapeworm
Infestation
Disinfestation

[Triploblastic animals]
Discuss the salient features of phylum nematoda??[I-I,I-J]
Shape
Complexity
No distinct head
Symmetry
Pseudocoelom
Size
Diversity
Body plan
Excretion
Nervous system
Sense organs
Circulatory and respiratory systems
Locomotion
Four band of muscles
Sex
Development
Examples

[Parasitic diseases]
Give the general characteristics of diseases caused by certain nematodes??[I-J, I-K]
Pin worm
Hook worm
Round worm
In what ways round worms are beneficient??

[Triploblastic coelomates]
Describe the general characters of annelida??[I-K, I-L]
General characters
Segmentation
Symmetry
Habitat
Tube-like digestive system
True coelom
Excretion
Nervous system
Closed blood system
Respiration
Muscles
Circular muscles
Longitudinal muscles
Locomotion
Reproduction
Examples

In what ways Earthworm are important??[I-L]

Briefly classify the phylum annelida??[I-L]
Class polychaeta
Examples
Class oligochaeta
Examples
Class hirudinea
Example

[Arthopoda]
Characterize and classify phylum arthropoda??[I-L]
Characteristics of arthropods
Jointed legs
Mouth parts
Largest phylum
Segmentation
Origin
Most versitile habitat
Size and shape
Haemocoel
Digestive system
Excretory system
Nervous system
Respiratory system
Open blood system
Excellent exoskeleton
Locomotion
Sex
Metamorphosis
Classification of arthropoda
Class Crustacea
Habitat
Size
Skeleton
The class insecta
Example
Diversity
Occurrence
Body
Sensory organs
Head
Thorax
Brain
Sexes
Wings
Class arachnida
Appendages
Sensory
Organs
Abdomen
Respiration
Excretion
Sex
Reproduction
Metamorphosis
Examples
Class Myriapoda
Examples

[General organization of arthropods]
Write a short note on general organization of arthropods??[I-O]
Symmetry
Exoskeleton
Appendage
Chitin
Moulting
Segmentation

[Economic importance]
Discuss the economic importance of insects??[I-O,I-P]
Harmful aspects of insects
Economic losses
Source of disease
Source of damage of crops
Beneficial aspects of insects

[Mollusca]
Describe the general features of phylum mollusca??[I-P, I-Q]
General characters
Diversity
Size
Shell
Mantle
Habitat
Division of body
Gills
Radula
Evolved organization
Coelom
Digestive system
Nephridia
Circulatory system
Nervous system
Locomotion
Seperate sexes
Trochophore larva
Torsion
Examples
Anonymous

United States

#11 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 10
What are various groups in which phylum mollusca is classified?
Briefly describe the characters of each class??[I-Q]
Gastropoda,examples
Bivalvia(pelecypoda),examples
Cephalopoda,examples
In what ways the giant squid and octopus is important??
[Economic importance of mollusca]
Describe briefly the economic importance of phylum mollusca??[I-Q, I-R]
Harmful aspects
Beneficial aspects
[Echinodermata]
Give the salient features of phylum echinodermata??
General characteristics
Exclusively marine
Exoskeleton
Symmetry
Habitat
Symmetry in larval forms
Shape
Water vascular system
Locomotion poor organization sexes development regeneration
Examples
Give the reasons why the echinoderm in spite of simple organization are placed at the top of the list of invertibrates??[I-S]
[Affinities]
Discuss the affinities in echinoderms??[I-S]
[Phylum hemichordata]
Discuss briefly the features of phylum hemichordata??[I-S,I-T]
General characters
Examples
[Phylum chordata]
Write short note on phylum chordata??[I-T]
Example
What are three basic featured of chordates?
How protochordates differ from vertebrates?
Protochordate
Example
Vertebrate
Example
Briefly describe the classification of phylum chordata??[I-T,I-U]
Acrania
Sub-Phylum urochordata
Example
Sub-phylum cephalochordats
Example
Craniata
Example
Into what to super classes phylum vertebrata is divided??[I-U]
Super class pisces
Super class tetrapoda
Give the characters of class cyclostomata??[I-U]
Example
[Class chondrichthyes]
Give the characteristic features of class chondrichthyes??[I-U, I-V]
Example
General organization
Sting rays
Electric rays
Economic importance of sharks
[Class osteichthyes]
Describe the characters of osteicthyes??[I-V]
[Adaptations to aquatic life]
Discuss the major adaptation of fishes to the aquatic mode of life??[I-W]
Stream lined body
Swim bladder
Fins
Paired fins
Unpaired fins
Circulatory system
Respiratory system
Excretory organs
In what way the dipnoi is regarded as an incident in the transition of land??
What are the differences between water habitat and land habitat??
Discuss the adaptation which the animals had to undergo in their transition from aquatic to land environment??
[Transition from aquatic to land habitat]
Describe briefly the evolution first ever land vertebrate??[I-W]
[Super class tetrapods]
Characterize class amphibia??
Diversity
Skeleton
Body form
Limbs
Skin
Respiration
Heart
Sexes
Development
Metamorphosis
Hibernation
Anamniotes
Caecilians
Eggs
Examples
Anonymous

Europe

#12 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 10
[Class reptilia]
Characterize reptilia and give example??[I-Y,I-Z]
Copulatory organ
Egg
Skin
Protective membrane heart
Better limbs
Jaws
Hibernation
Early reptiles
Existing line of present day reptiles
Example
[Class aves birds]
Write a short note on archaeopteryx??[I-Z,I-ZA]
Give the adaptations for aerial mode of life in birds.What is their origin??
OR
Characterize birds and give examples??[I-ZA]
Stream-line body modified limbs
Modified exoskeleton
Modified endoskeleton
Modification in skull
Circulatory system
Respiratory system
Syrinx
Excretory system
Reproductive system
Gizzard
Flight,examples
Origin of birds
Reptilian characters
Avian characters
[Mammals]
What are mammals??
Discuss their origin??[I-ZA, I-ZB]
Origin of mammals
What are general characters of mammals??how do the three sub classes,prototheria,metatheria and eutheria differ from each other??
General characters of mammals[I-ZB,I-ZC]
Hair
Diaphragm
Modified lower jaw
Highly evolved in ear
Two sets of teeth
Circulatory system
Homeothermic
Blood cells
Highly modified larynx
Viviparous
Mammary glands
Example
Classification of mammals
Sub class prototheria
Mammalian features of protherians
Reptilian features of protherian
Sub class metatheria,examples
Sub class eutheria,exampled
Exercise [I-ZD,I-ZE]
Anonymous

Europe

#13 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 11

Define bioenergetics discuss its role in the biological systems??[ J-A,J-B]
Bioenergetics
Sunlight-the ultimate source of energy
Evolution of respiration
Photosynthesis

[Photosynthesis]
Define photosynthesis.discuss this process with reference to reactants and products??[J-B]
Definition
Photosynthetic reactants and products
Comparison between respiration and photosynthesis

[Water and photosynthesis]
In what ways photosynthesis is important for both photosynthesis and aerobic respiration??describe briefly the experiment which confirmed that source of atmospheric oxygen is water and not the carbon di oxide??[J-B]
Experiments

[Chloroplasts]
Discuss chloroplast as the site of photosynthesis??[J-C]
Site
Number
Structure
Tylakoids
Chemiosmosis
Grana
Electron acceptors
Formation of ADP and NADPH2
Site of photosynthesis in prokaryotes

[Photosynthetic pigments]
What are photosynthetic pigments??where spectrophometer is used??[J-D]
Spectrophometer
Types of pigments

[Chlorophylls]
Discuss the structure and function of chlorophyll??[J-D,J-E]
Why the plants appear green
Structure of chlorophyll molecule
Resemblance between chlorophyll and haemoglobin
Difference between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll b
Solubility of chlorophyll

[Carotenoids]
Write a short note on accessory pigments??[J-E]

[light the driving energy]
Discuss light as the driving force??[J-E]

What is absorption spectrum?how it differs from action spectrum??[J-E,J-F]
Absorption and action spectrum

Who prepared the first action spectrum??[J-F]

[Role of Carbon dioxide a photosynthetic reactant]
Discuss the role of carbon dioxide as photosynthetic reactant??[J-F]
Source of carbon dioxide
Role of stomata
What are the internal clock with reference of mitochondria??

[Reactions of photosynthesis]
What is a redox process?how light reactions differ from dark reactions??[J-F,J-G]
Redox process
Light reactions

[Light dependant reactions]
(ENERGY CONVERSION PHASE,FORMATION OF ATP AND NADPH2)
Discuss the way by which light energy is changed into chemical energy??
AND
Discuss in detail the light reactions of photosynthesis??[J-G,J-H,J-I,J -J]
Photosystems
Photosystem 1 and photosystem 2
Electron flow
Non-cyclic phosphorylation(z. scheme of light reaction
Photoexcitation
Photolysis
Electron transport chain
Photophosphorylation
Filling of hole
Formation of NADPH
Scheme of light reaction
Overall reaction
Cyclic phosphorylation
Chemiosmosis
Summary of light dependant reaction
Anonymous

Europe

#14 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 11

[Light independant reactions(dark reaction)]
(calvin cycle carbon fixation and reduction phase synthesis of sugar)
Describe dark reaction in detail??
AND
Discuss how carbon dioxide is fixed during photosynthesis to form carbohydrates??[J-J,J-K]
Equation
Calvin cycle
Phase 1 2 3
Carbon fixation
Initiation of calvin cycle
Formation of unstable 6-carbon compound
Formation of PGA
Carbon fixation
Reduction
Regeneration of CO2 acceptor RuBP

(((Write a detailed note on respiration??
How anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiration??
Discuss in detail the process of glycolysis??
Describe the steps that occur during Krebs Cycle??
Sketch and label the krebs Cycle and discuss its energy yielding steps??[J-K,J-L,J-M,J-N,J-O])) )
Respiration
Cellular respiration
Alcoholic fermentation
Lactic acid fermentation
Production of energy
Disadvantages
Aerobic respiration(cellular respiration)
Glycolysis
Preparatory phase
Oxidative phase
Krebs Cycle
Preparatory phase(Pyruvic acid oxidation)
Cyclic phase
Krebs Cycle or citric acid cycle
Acetylcoa keeps the cycle going
Energy transfers and release of CO2
Summing up citric acid cycle

What are mitochondria?discuss their role in respiration??[J-O]
Role of mitochondria in respiration
Adenosine triphosphate and its importance
Structure
Biological oxidation

Sketch respiratory electron transport chain.Discuss the significance of ETC???
AND
Write a short note on respiratory chain???[J-O,J-P]
Respiratory chain (electron transport chain)
Cytochromes
Steps involved in chain

Write note on oxidative phosphorylation??[J-P]

Compare photosynthesis with respiration in plants??[J-P,J-Q]

Exercise [J-Q,J-R,J-S,J-T]
Anonymous

Europe

#15 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 12

What is a nutrient??define nutrition??[K-A]
Nutrition

In what two classes organisms are divided on the bases of their modes of nutrition??[K-A,K-B]
Autotrophic
Heterotrophic

[Mineral nutrition in plants]
What are the elements needed by plants for the synthesis of their organic molecules and from where the plants obtain these necessary elements??[K-B]
Elements needed by plants
The main source of these nutrients

[Mineral element deficiencies]
Which diseases and symptoms appear in the plant when nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium and magnesium is not enough in the soil??[K-B]
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Magnesium

[Heterotrophic and special mode of nutrition in plants]
Discuss some of the special modes of nutrition in plants??
OR
Write Short note on following special modes of nutrition in plants???[K-B,K-C]
Saprophytic nutrition
Parasitic nutrition
Symbiotic nutrition

How mycorrhizzal fungus benefits the plant??[K-B,K-C]

[Nutrition in insectivorous plants]
Write a detailed note on nutrition in insectivorous plants??[K-C,K-D]
Insectivorous plants
Pitcher plant
Venus fly trap
Sundew

[Method of animal nutrition]
In what way digestive system helps larger animals??[K-D]

Into which various groups the animals are classified on the basis of nutrition??[K-D,K-E]
Detritivores
Herbivores
Teeth
Example
Carnivores
Teeth example
Omnivored
Teeth
Examples
Filter feeders
Water movement
Fluid feeders
Adaptations
Examples
Macrophagous feeders
Methods
In garden snail

What is the significance of predator-pray relationship with reference to ecosystem??[K-E]

[Parasitic Nutrition]
Describe parasite.What are different types of parasites?explain briefly with the example of animals??[K-E,K-F]
Ectoparasite
Endoparasite
Obligate and facultative parasite

[Digestion and absorption]
What are the requirements of animals??from where they get and how these changed in useable form??
Define holozoic nutrition.give the characteristics process involved in the holozoic nutrition??[K-F]
Ingestion
Digestion
Absorption
Assimilation
Egestion

Illustrate various stages of ingestion digestion and egestion in amoeba??[K-F,K-G]
Stages of digestion
Ingestion
Food
Process
Digestion
Assimilation
Egestion

[Digestion in hydra]
Describe digestive system in hydra??[K-G,K-H]
Coelenteron
Nematocyst
Digestion
Ingestion
Digestion
Egestion

[Digestion in planaria]
Write note on digestive system in planaria??[K-H]
Degestive cavity
Ingestion
Digestion
Extracellular
Intracellular digestion
Egestion

[Digestion in Cockroach]
Describe digestion in cockroach?in what way the tube-like system of cockroach is better than sac-like digestive system??[K-I]
Fore gut
Mid gut
Hind gut
Process of digestion
Ingestion
Digestion
Egestion
Tube-like digestive system is better than sac-like
Anonymous

Europe

#16 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 12

[Digestion in man]
What are various parts associated with long coiled tube of digestive system of man that extend from anus to mouth??[K-I,K-K]

List the various gland associated with the digestive system of man??[K-K]

What are three sites of digestion in the digestive system of man??[K-K]

[Digestion in oral cavity]
What are the functions of oral cavity in the digestive system of man??[K-K]
Selection of food
Grinding or mastication
Lubrication and digestion
Swallowing

Write note on peristalsis??[K-L]
Peristalsis
Antiperistalsis
What are hunger pangs?

What is the role of gravity in the movement of material through the esophagus??[K-M]

[Digestion in Stomach]
Describe the digestion in the stomach of man??[K-M,K-N]
Cardiac sphincter
Location
Structure of the wall
Gastrin
Role of mucus
Role of hydrochloric acid
Role of pepsin
Formation of Chyme
Pyloric Sphincter

What is pyrosis??[K-N]

[Digestion in small intestine]
List the parts of small intestine and discuss the role of deudenum in detail??[K-N]
Pancreas
Pancreatic amylase
Lipase
Trypsin
Liver
Bile
What are gall stones??how these gall stones are involved in causing Jaundice??

(((In what way liver reduces the toxicity??
What are common serious problemd of malfunction of liver??
What is the role of gastrin in the digestion of proteins??
What is the role of secretin in digestion??
What is jejunum??discuss the role of jejunum and ileum in digestion of man??[K-O])))

[Absorption of food]
Give the structure and function of villi??
AND
Discuss how food is absorbed in the small intestine??[K-O,K-P]
Villi
Microvilli
Absorption

Why some people develop intestinal gas and diarrhoea on using milk and milk products??[K-P]
How the inside of intestine is kept in perfect in spite lining on the inside of lumen is damaged continuously by the gut content passing through??[K-P]

Describe briefly the functions of large intestine??[K-P]
Caecum
Appendix
Function
Malfunctions of large intestine
Diarrhoea
Constipation
Rectum

Tabulate a table indicating functions of different organs of digestive system of man?
Oral cavity
Salivary glands
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Accessory glands
Small intestine
Large intestine

[Some common diseases related to nutrition]
Discuss some of the common diseases related to nutrition??
AND
Write short note on following??[K-Q,K-R,K-S]
Dyspepsia
Symptoms
Causes
Food poisoning
Symptoms
Causes
Severe condition
Effect
Symptoms
Obesity
Adipose tissue
Effects
Anorexia nervosa
Causes
Treatment
Bulimia nervosa
Causes
Treatment
Piles
Causes
Treatment
Ulcer
Peptic Ulcer

Execise [K-T,K-U,K-V,K-W]
Anonymous

United States

#17 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 1
DEFINE BIOLOGY.WHAT THE TERM BIOLOGY LITERALLY MEAN?THE UNDERSTANDING OF WHICH ASPECT OF KNOWLEDGE IS HELPED BY BIOLOGY?[P-A, P-B]
How to define life:
Characteristics of living things:Wideness of Biology
[Major branches of biology]
DISCUSS BRIEFLY THE MAJOR BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY?[P-B]
Molecular Biology
Environmental biology
Microbiology
Freshwater biology
Marine biology
Parasitology
Human biology
Social biology
Biotechnology
[Levels of biological organisation]
WHAT ARE BIOELEMENTS?HOW MANY BIOELEMENTS CONSTITUTE 99 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL MASS OF THE BODY?[P-B, P-C]
Bioelements
Speciality of bioelements
WHY BIOLOGICAL ORGANISATION IS NOT SIMPLE?[P-C]
DISCUSS THE LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANISATION?[P-C, P-D , P-E]
Atomic and subatomic levels
Molecular level
Organic and inorganic molecules
Micromolecules and macromolecules
Orgenelles and Cell,example
Tissue level
Organ and System,function
[Organ level of organisation in plants]
Functions of organs of plants
Individual (whole organism),special features,example
WHAT IS BIOME?EXPLAIN BRIEFLY[P-F]
Importance of biome
Naming of biome
[Living world in time]
WHAT IS GEOLOGICAL TIME CHART?HOW THIS CHART IS HELPFUL TO EXPLAIN THAT DIFFERENT ORGANISMS EVOLVED AT DIFFERENT TIMES?[P-F]
Fossils
Importance of fossils
Method
By comaring the amount of radioactive element
[Phyletic lineage]
DISCUSS BRIEFLY THE PHYLETIC LINEAGE IN BIOLOGICAL ORGANISATION.[P-F, P-G]
Biodiversity
Number of species
Phyletic lineage
Incompleteness of record
[Biological method]
EXPLAIN THE BIOLOGICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING THE BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM.HOW DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REASONING PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN IT?[P-G, P-H]
Observations
Types of Observations
Hypothesis
Ways of devising hypothesis
Deductive reasoning,examples
Inductive reasoning,example
Other ways of devising hypothesis
Testing of hypothesis
Scientific law
[Biology and the service of mankind]
GIVE THE ROLE OF BIOLOGY IN THE SERVICE OF MANKIND.[P-H, P-I, P-J]
1-FOOD PRODUCTION [P-H]
New varities
Selective breeding,
Genetic enginnering
Cloning
Pest control
Bilogical controls,example
Biopesticides
Integrated disease management
Hydroponic farming,method
Pasteurization
2-DISEASE CONTROL [P-I]
Preventive measures,examples
Vaccination
Development of first vaccine
Immunization
Elimination of small pox
Drugs treaatment
Gene therapy
Chemotherapy
Radiotherapy
Integrated disease management
Other contribution of biological science
3-CLONING [P-I, P-J]
Preparation of first mammalian clone
Another way of cloning
4-PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF ENVIRONMENT [P-J]
Toxic heavy metals
Enviromental pollution
Bioremediation,example
Endangered Species
Evironmental pollution in Pakistan
EXERCISE [P-J ,P-K]
Anonymous

Europe

#18 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 2
[Introduction to biochemistry]
Define biochemistry.What is the importance of studying biochemistry?[A-A]
WHICH TYPE OF CHEMICALS ARE GENERALLY PRESENT IN THE LIVING THINGS?[A-A]
Organic
Inorganic
Give the approximate chemical composition of a typical bacterial and a mammalian cell.[A-B]
Why some chemicals are needed for the survival of organisms?[A-B]
DEFINE METABOLISM.HOW ANABOLIC ACTIVITIES DIFFER FROM CATABOLIC ONES?
Anabolism
Catabolism
Interconversions
[Importance of carbon]
IN WHAT WAY CARBON IS IMPORTANT FOR ALL LIVING THINGS?[A-B, A-C]
Basic elements
Tetravalent
Carbon-carbon bonds
Formation of C-H,C-O and C-N bond
Formation of macromolecules
Formation of small and unstable molecules
[Importance of water]
DESCRIBE THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER FOR LIFE.[A-C]
Medium of life
Solvent properties
Heat capacity
Heat of vaporization
Ionization of water
Protection
How covalent bonds are formed?why these covalent bonds are important for living things?
[Carbohydrates]
WRITE A BRIEF NOTE ON CARBOHYDRATES.[A-D]
Introduction of molecules and oxygen
Structural and functional role
Hydrated carbons
Chemical composition
Products of photosynthesis
Role in extracellular matrix
Formation of biological membrane
Why carbohydrates are also known as saccharides?Name the groups into which carbohydrates are classified.
WRITE A DETAILED NOTE ON MONOSACCHARIDE?[A-D, A-E]
Introduction
Chemical composition
Complexity on the bases of carbon atoms
Occurrence of monosaccharides in nature
Ring structure
Presence of glucose in free state and combined form
Production of glucose
A noteworthy point
WRITE A SHORT NOTE ON OLIGOSACCHARIDES?[A-E]
Physical nature
Transport disaccharides
Bases of complexity
Glycosidic bonds
Physiological importance
DESCRIBE WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT POLYSACCHARIDES.[A-E, A-F]
Starch
Type of starches
Glycogen
Cellulose
[LIPIDS]
WHAT ARE LIPID?IN WHAT WAYS THESE ARE IMPORTANT?[A-F]
Hydophobic compound
Sources of energy
Functions of lipids
Insulation
Conservation of water
Exoskeleton
Protection
Hormones
GIVE THE NAMES OF GROUPS INTO WHICH THE LIPIDS ARE CLASSIFIED.DISCUSS ACYLGLYCEROL IN DETAIL[A-F]
Acylglycerols
Fatty acids
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
Bases of solubility and melting point
Physical state
Specific gravity and crystallization
In what ways fats are harmful?
WRITE BRIEF NOTES ON WAXES AND PHOSPHOLIPIDS?[A-G,A-H]
Waxes,chemical nature,functions
Phospholipids chemical nature
Occurrence and functions
Anonymous

Europe

#19 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 2

What are terpenoids?[A-H]
In what ways lipids are important?
Sources of energy
Membrane formation
Protection by lipids

[Proteins]
What are proteins?discuss the functions of proteins.[A-H]
Introduction
Functions of proteins
Building material
Enzymes
Immunity
Hormones
Movements
Transportation of respiratory gases
Source of enery
Clotting of blood
Movement of chromosomes

WRITE A SHORT NOTE ON AMINO ACIDS?[A-I]
Introduction
Types of amino acids
Chemical nature
Importance of R group
Synthesis of Protein
Formation of C-N link
Number of Amino acid as base of complexity

[Structure of proteins]
DISCUSS IN DETAIL LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF PROTEINS.
OR
DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS IN DETAIL.[A-I, A-J]
Structure of proteins-a base for specific proteins
Levels of organization
Primary structure
Structure of insulin
Structure of haemoglobin
Size of protein molecule
Proper positioning of amino acids
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Quarternary structure

DESCRIBE BRIEFLY THE CLASSIFICATION OF PROTEIN?[A-J]
Fibrous proteins
Globular proteins

[Nucleic acids]
WRITE A SHORT NOTE ON NUCLEIC ACID?[A-K]
Isolation
Type of nucleic acids
Role of nucleic acids
Units of nucleic acids
Sub units of nucleotide
Nitrogenous bases
Nucleoside and nucleotide
Nucleotide as energy tranferor
Adenosine triphosphate

Write a short note on DNA.[A-L]
Describe very briefly the contribution of Erwin Chargaff.[A-L]
DESCRIBE VERY BRIEFLY THE CONTRIBUTION OF
WILKINS AND FRANKLIN
WATSON AND CRICK IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF MODEL OF DNA[A-L]
Structure of DNA

Prepare a table to show that the amount of DNA is fixed for a particular species and it depends upon the number of chromosomes?[A-M]
What is genome
In what way the microbe haemophilus influenzae is well known?
WHAT IS RNA?DESCRIBE DIFFERENT TYPES OF RNA.[A-M]
Types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Transfer RNA
Ribosomal RNA

[Conjugated molecules]
WHAT ARE CONJUGATED MOLECULES?IN WHAT WAYS THESE CONJUGATED MOLECULES ARE IMPORTANT?[A-M,A-N]
Definition
Functions,importance

Exercise [A-N,A-O]
Anonymous

Europe

#20 Apr 25, 2012
Chapter 3

WHAT ARE ENZYMES?WHAT IS THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION?HOW DO THEY WORK?[B-A]
Definition
Chemical composition
Working of enzymes
Active site

WHAT IS CO-FACTOR?WHY IT IS SOMETIMES KNOWN AS ACTIVATOR?[B-A,B-B]
Definition
Explanation

DIFFERENTIATE THE FOLLOWING TERMS:[B-B]
Prosthetic group and Coenzyme
Apoenzyme and holoenzyme
Where and in which form enzymes are produced?

[Characteristics of enzymes]
DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYMES.[B-B]
Shape
Catalyst
Nature
Active in traces
Specific
Sensitive in pH
Need of Co-factor
Activation dnergy
Fast

What happens if enzyme is activated at wrong place?[B-C]
[Mechanism of enzyme action (catalysis)]
DESCRIBE IN DETAIL THE MECHANISM OF ENZYME ACTION.[B-C]
Specificity of enzyme
Steps of Mechanism of enzyme action
Development of active site
Production of enzyme-substrate complex
Activation of catalystic Site
Release of enzyme
EXPLAIN ENZYME WITH LOCK AND KEY MODEL AND INDUCED FIT MODEL?[B-C]
Lock and key model
Induced fit model
What is meant by enzyme co-enzyme chain?

What is the special feauture of enzymes of mitochondria and chloroplast?[B-D]
[Factors affecting the rate of enzyme action]
DISCUSS THE FACTOR AFFECTING THE RATE RATE OF ENZYME ACTION
OR
GIVE THE AFFECT OF pH ON THE EFFICIENCY OF ENZYME[B-D,B-E]
Enzyme concentration
Effects
Substrate concentration
Effects
Temperature
Effects
The pH of the medium
Effects

[Inhibitors]
WHAT IS AN INHIBITOR?HOW DOES IT INHIBITS THE ACTION OF ENZYMES?[B-E,B-F]
Irreversible inhibitors
Reversible inhibitors
Competitive inhibitors
Noncompetitive inhibitors

Exercise [B-F,B-G]

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